Joel GARREAU, author of Radical Evolution: The Promise and Peril of Enhancing Our Minds, Our Bodies—and What It Means to Be Human (2005), defines GRIN technologies as following.
" You can see 4 technologies that I call the GRIN technologies: Genetics, Robotics, Information technology and Nanotechnology, and all of them are following a curve of exponential change." source
robotics and artificial intelligence
In the United States, robots are often objects of fear. In Japan, robots can even become the friend of man. Thus the exoskeletons that could revolutionize the lives of senior citizens and the disabled are Nippon. Could the robot ultimately move from the status of modern slave to that of the companion of mankind? Robots are already among us (medicine, industry, security, etc..) and in the near future, this presence will raise questions about work, security, assistance to the person...
biosciences (biotechnologies, genomics, health, medicine)
The advance of knowledge in genetics is fraught with future changes. New concerns are arising: mastectomies as a preventive measure for carriers of the BRCA1 gene, the destruction of all embryos carrying potential disabilities. At the same time, gene therapy has raised hopes for the end of cancer and Alzheimer's disease, among other potential cures.
Advances in medicine are significant but so is the progress of diseases, viruses and other pathogens. Globalization facilitates pandemics. Health, medicine, nutrition and well-being seem more and more intertwined. From research on immortality to the medical role of nanotechnology, there is a fine line between science fiction and reality. What are the consequences for our lives and our societies?
information and communication sciences
Increasing capacities, including miniaturization and transmission of remote data, have combined to develop not only the web of the Internet but also everyday objects such as sensors (RFID, etc), making them progressively more " intelligent" and offering us exponential power (cell phones, laptops, PDA). What futures are these developments shaping for us?